The restrictions vary from country to country, and in many cases, men are deferred even though they always have protected sex or have not had sex with men for many years.
The restrictions affect these men, and, in some cases, any female sex partners.
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Some groups in favor of lifting the restrictions support a waiting period after the blood is donated when the donor is considered to have had behavior considered higher risk, and before it is used, to match the blood bank's window of testing methods.
Depending on the testing method used, the window to detect HIV can be as short as 9 to 14 days (RNA testing), or as long as three months (serology testing method). Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is to defer any male donor who has had sex with another man (MSM) in the past year. The argument used to follow these policies is that blood should be collected from a population that is at low risk for disease, since the tests are not perfect and human error may lead to infected units not being properly discarded, and these population groups would be considered a high risk.
The approach emphasizes audiences’ choice by assessing their reasons for using a certain media to the disregard of others, as well as the various gratifications obtained from the media, based on individual social and psychological requirements (Severin & Tankard, 1997).
This approach differs from other theoretical perspectives in that it regards audiences as active media users as opposed to passive receivers of information. They do not otherwise affect other women, including women who have sex with women.Opponents of many of the deferrals argue that these policies are not supported by medical science, Many LGBT organizations view the restrictions on donation as based on homophobia and not based on valid medical concern since donations are rigorously tested to rule out donors that are infected with known viruses such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Opponents of prohibitions against MSM point out that screening of donors should focus on sexual behavior as well as safe sex practices since many MSM may always have protected sex, be monogamous, or be in other low risk categories.In contrast to traditional media effects theories which focus on “what media do to people” and assume audiences are homogeneous, uses and gratifications approach is more concerned with “what people do with media” (Katz, 1959). It allows audiences personal needs to use media and responds to the media, which determined by their social and psychological background.